A contingency table (otherwise called a cross-tabulation or crosstab) is a sort of table in a lattice design that shows the (multivariate) recurrence appropriation of the variables. They are intensely utilized in review research, business insight, designing, and logical examination. They give a fundamental image of the interrelation between two variables and can help discover collaborations between them. Pivot tables are used to create a contingency table.

The odds ratio is one of the methods to measure the degree of association between two variables in a contingency table. In a table consisting of 2 columns and 2 tables (2x2) where A are rows and B are tables. The odds ratio is determined as the ratio of the odds of B in the presence of B and the odds of B in the absence of A and vice versa. Two events are said to be independent if the odds ratio is 1. For instance, it is greater than 1, the events would be considered positively associated, if the odd ratio is lesser than 1, the events are considered negatively associated.

Assume two variables, sex (male or female) and handedness (right-or left-gave). Further, assume that 100 people are arbitrarily tested from an enormous populace as a component of an investigation of sex contrasts in handedness. A contingency table can be made to show the quantities of people who are male right-hand and left-hand, female right-hand, and left-hand.